Anderson Model: The Environment
Scott Woodside, Tori Heinonen, Colin Ferrian, Mac Webb, Melanie Schowalter

Politics
· FSM Constitution similar to that of the U.S.
o 3 separate branches at the national level: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial
o Declaration of Rights similar to the US Bill of Rights
§ Specifies basic human rights and also includes a provision protecting traditional rights
· Differs from the US system in that most governmental functions (not including foreign affairs and defense) are carried out at the State level
· Congress: 14 senators
o One from each state elected for a four-year term and ten who serve two-year terms
o Chuuk= 6 seats, Pohnpei=4, Yap=2, and Kosrae=2
· President and Vice President elected to 4 year terms by Congress
· Current President=Emanuel Mori and Vice President= Alik L. Alik
· Former UN Trust territories of the United States
· Compact of Free Association between the United States and the FSM took effect on November 3, 1986.
o The Compact establishes the FSM as an independent nation and the United States provides substantial annual grants to add to local revenues to run public sector operations
o 2 Funding periods:
§ 1986-2003: 1 billion
§ 2004-2023: 1.8 billion dollars

Economy
§ The leading popular industries are subsistence agriculture and fishing
o Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficient farming where farmers focus on growing enough food to feed their families.
o Less than 10% of the labor force farms and less than 7% of the export revenue come from the agricultural sector.
o The planting decisions are made with an eye towards what the family will need the following year rather than market prices
o Commercial fishing $20 million annually in licenses to the FSM government for the right to operate in the territorial waters.
o This accounts for 30% of the domestic budgetary revenue.
o Export of marine products, mainly re-exports of fish to Japan, account for 85% of export revenue.
§ The primary source of revenue in the economy is the US government.
o Under the terms of the compact of free association, the US pledged to spend around $170 million a year on the FSM.
o The FSM is only able to control $79 million dollars $170 million, and the other $61 million are assigned to Micronesian departments by the US government. This occurs in order to prevent the US money from falling into the corruption that occurs throughout the islands.
§ Half of the working class in the FSM is employed by the US government. With 85,800 people in the workforce, after 22% of unemployment, a total of 42,900 people are employed by the government. The government employs 39% of the entire population.
§ The average income of healthcare professionals is divided 10-fold from the US to Kosrae. Dr. Nicholas, the dentist from the Kosrae hospital, told us that his salary in California was $250,000 and it dropped to $24,000 in Kosrae.
o The healthcare professionals all agreed that they believed they should be paid more. They are in a constant struggle with the government to agree on a salary. Dr. Nicholas said that he was expecting a 40% increase within the next year, however the other doctors believed this was only speculation.

Environment
· Agricultural activities provide more than 60% of the food consumed, and employ nearly 50% of the labor force on a full-time or seasonal basis
· Because of extensive volcanic uprising, soil is composed of a nutrient-rich top layer and porous second and third layers. Combined with heavy annual rain accumulation, this causes the soil to become extremely fertile and conducive to extensive farming
· FSM has numerous endemic fruit and vegetable varieties including bananas, coconuts, papayas, mangoes, breadfruit, and avocadoes
· Environmental hazards affecting the FSM include
o Poor waste management control
o Decaying batteries/other household toxins seeping into the watershed
o Over-fishing
o Exploitation of resources
o Global climate change
o Long-term radioactive fallout
o Poor enforcement methods due to lack of funds
· Steps in the process of waste management in the FSM include:
o Education and awareness about the importance of waste control
o Sorting of trash, recycling, and hazards within each household
o Creating a system for trash to be picked up by dump trucks
o Sorting of trash, recycling, and hazards at the in-ground lined waste facility
o Placing trash in its final destination: the dump or recycling center
· The conservation, allocation, and use of natural resources is the main issue that ties the Micronesia’s economics, environment, and healthcare together. With proper use of resources, the FSM can provide for the future while preserving the past. (Ex. fishing and farming to completely feed community members and export to other countries to drive a healthy lifestyle and economy.)

Health Care
· Each State government in the Federated States of Micronesia maintains its own health services
o Each State maintains a centrally located hospital that provides a minimum range of primary- and secondary-level services, including both preventive and curative services
· Six private health clinics in the Federated States of Micronesia and one private hospital
· 113 dispensaries and community health centers
· Health services are highly subsidized by the State governments except in the private clinics
· A referral program exists due to the shortfall of certain types of health services in facilities including specialists and specific diagnostic procedures.
o Patients are referred specifically to hospitals in Hawaii, Guam, and the Philippines
· Total spent on health in 2008=$32.7 million (including all spending for health by the national and state governments, the social health insurance schemes, and household out-of-pocket (WHO)
· Major health issues in the FSM include diabetes, cancer (lung and cervical most prevalent), STIs, cardiovascular disease, stroke, tuberculosis, leprosy, and hepatitis.


References:
Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov
Government of the Federated States of Micronesia. http://www.fsmgov.org/index.html
Government of the Federated States of Micronesia. President Mori’s Signs $35 million FSM
Budget for FY2010: September 9, 2010.
http://www.fsmgov.org/press/pr100189.html
Samo, M., & Racelis, R.H. (2010). An analysis of FSM national health care expenditures from
1997-2005. Journal of Community Health and Clinical Medicine for the Pacific, 16(1), 27-39.
World Health Organization: Western Pacific Region.
http://www.wpro.who.int/countries/2010/mic/national_health_priorities.htm